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Shocks generate high uncertainty creating the need for firms to search for solutions to cope with the changed business landscape. One such response is the creation of new partnerships. Yet, do all shocks affect the interorganizational responses that follow equally? This article proposes that distinguishing between technological and non-technological shocks can be a useful lens to look at how interfirm collaboration changes in the face of a shock. Using the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks as an illustrative example of non-technological shock, the authors describe how it affected collaboration in the air transport industry.

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